Hurricane Katrina struck the city of New Orleans in America in August 29, 2005. The tragedy that hit the American city was a devastating one, killing almost 2,000 people and affecting about 90,000 square miles of America. The hurricane brought heavy rains and storm surges in some places. Low-lying areas were flooded and 80% of the whole city was under water (A&E Television Networks, n.d.). The people had to climb to their attics and rooftops to seek for refuge and safety. Many people flocked to the Superdome for evacuation, but the supplies there were limited. Thousands became desperate for shelter food and water. The evacuation centers were in chaos and the whole city was a devastated sight. It was also impossible to leave New Orleans as people were stuck in the city. No one could get far from the city without proper transportation and evacuation. Thus, hurricane Katrina was a total disaster where people became lost in a maze of chaos and despair. It was perhaps one of the biggest tragedies that struck America.
The damage in homes and infrastructure in New Orleans was estimated to hit billions in dollars. But the most shattering damage that hurricane Katrina left was the psychological impact of the disaster among the affected people. It left an indelible mark in the lives of thousands and many suffered mental health problems due to the trauma, pain and hopelessness that they saw and felt at the time of the disaster, and even after the catastrophe. It was a tragedy that could not be forgotten overnight, in weeks, and in months. It took years for those who were affected by hurricane Katrina to move on. Yet some still live in nightmares, trauma and doubt due to the overwhelming effect of the tragedy in their lives.
Years after the tragedy, it had been noted that survivors of hurricane Katrina struggled with poor mental health. A study by the Princeton University showed that people who suffered in mental health right after the storm were not back to baseline mental health and they even showed high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms nearly after five years later. The results in the said study were rare in disaster studies. Based on the study, the respondents showed two signs of poor signs of mental health, including psychological distress and post-traumatic stress symptoms. The researchers of the study found that even after four years, 30% of the participants still had psychological distress and about 33% still had post-traumatic stress symptoms. In the study, the participants also pointed that lack of food, water and medical care, including home damage, death of family and friends were some of the stressors that affected them. About two-thirds of the participants of the study were also back in New Orleans area. However, nobody lived in their old homes anymore. They are now living in new communities. According to the researchers, the study was significant in designing programs and policies that helped in addressing the mental health problems of survivors of hurricane Katrina (Patel, 2012).
Meanwhile, in a separate study by the National Institute of Mental Health (2008), it was revealed that more residents affected by the storm endured mental disorders than those initially studied a few months after the onset of the hurricane. The study was a contrast to the typical pattern of recovery after calamities, wherein the number of survivors who suffered with mental illnesses gradually decrease after two years at most. The study saw an increase of about 11% to 14% in the prevalence of serious mental illnesses. The study also showed that the prevalence of suicidal thoughts among survivors increased from 2.8% to 6.4%. Post-traumatic stress disorder also increased up to 15%. The results of the study revealed the slow-pace of recovery of those affected and it suggested the need for a continuous attention of practical and appropriate mental health interventions for the survivors (National Institute of Mental Health, 2008).
The above studies underscore the conclusion of many experts that natural disasters like hurricane Katrina, which devastated and affected a large population, often results in mass cases of Post Traumatic Disorder or PTSD. Peter Levine, a well-respected psychological expert said that trauma is characterized not by the event itself, like the coming of hurricane Katrina, but by one’s reactions to the storm and its symptoms. The hurricane Katrina is an example of a distressing and overwhelming experience that caused trauma among its survivors. Traumatic events that lead to PTSD are insidious. This is because they traumatize a large number of individuals at once and can often end up in feelings of guilt among the survivors and other PTSD symptoms that can be cured over a long period of time.
Hurricane Katrina was a sudden and overwhelming catastrophe that first shocked the survivors. The survivors who were stranded in New Orleans during the onslaught of hurricane Katrina were shaken, dazed and stunned by the overwhelming damage that they experienced. Like most survivors of disasters, shock would be a natural feeling. This feeling can be accompanied by numbness and denial. What can be seen in the faces of survivors were feelings of initial shock, like the event was surreal something that never happened. Eventually, the truth would sink in among the survivors and they would be in an overemotional state wherein they would feel high levels of anxiety depression and guilt. What can be seen in the people’s reactions were feelings of hopelessness and loss.
According to theorists of the psychology of disasters, there are various phases of disasters that show the emotional reactions to disasters. These phases are pre-disaster phase, impact phase, heroic phase, honeymoon phase, disillusionment phase, and reconstruction phase. The Pre-disaster phase describes the phase where the community receives warnings of the type of disaster and the possible threats of the calamity (McMahon, 2011). A day before hurricane Katrina struck there was a warning for the residents of New Orleans. Some evacuated to designated places of evacuation, but many chose to stay home. The impact was even greater for those who opted to stay at home because by the time the hurricane hit the city, the people could not get out of their house because of sudden flooding all over New Orleans.
The Impact Phase is the onset of the disaster when it hits the area. In this phase, people are restless and anxious and pangs of panic are felt. It is said that the greater the scope, personal losses, and community destruction associated with the calamity, the greater the psychological effects. This particular phase of disaster was apparent in the reactions of survivors of hurricane Katrina. At the onset, when the storm hit the city and the whole city was totally damaged, people came scurrying to several places to save themselves. One important concept in scenarios of disasters is the concept of panic. The expected behavior of an individual during disasters is panic. This behavior is described by lynch mobs, suicidal attempts, individual and collective anxieties, mass hysteria and group tensions. In the various scenarios seen after hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans, one would see panic-stricken individuals who possessed feelings of shock and anxieties. Everywhere, you would see the overwhelmed faces of survivors, stunned and dazed of what just happened and not knowing where to go (Gantt, P. & Gantt, R., 2012).
There is also a Heroic Phase in disaster scenarios. This phase is characterized by various acts of altruism and volunteerism among emergency responders and survivors themselves. Rescue missions are conducted, direct assistance is extended and resources are distributed. It is during this phase that people try to survive the ordeal of a disaster (McMahon, 2011). When hurricane Katrina has passed, people tried to survive. Responders were quick to scout the city area for people to relocate them in safe grounds. Survivors became heroes themselves, who helped in the search and rescue missions. This phase gave a feeling of hope for many survivors. In the days after the hurricane, there were scenes of heroism and altruism that sparked inspiration and courage too.
Meanwhile, the Honeymoon Phase is a stage where survivors feel a short-lived feeling of optimism. In the Disillusionment Phase, survivors go through an inventory process where they assess the process of disaster assistance. A series of negative feelings arise during this time such as disappointment, anger, resentment and frustration. This phase may explain the trauma that pervades many survivors, which triggered their mental illnesses. Eventually, survivors would begin to assimilate the shock of what happened during the disaster. They would begin to reconcile them to the new “reality” Survivors would start to work out their way out of their grief and build a new life. It is the phase of “acceptance.”
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Psychology is the study of the human mind and behavior. It is a scientific and academic study that also involves the application of knowledge to various aspects of activities of human beings including daily life, family relations and work behavior. It also involves the study of mental illnesses and problems (Lahav, O., n.d.).
The earliest theories on psychology were on a philosophical level. The origins of psychology were found in the ancient civilizations of Greece, Egypt, China and India. Early psychology involved philosophies on the mind, body and soul and how these all operate together (Lahav, n.d.).
Meanwhile, it was in the 17th century that idea of dualism was introduced. It was Rene Descartes, a French philosopher, who presented the theory. In his theory, Descartes asserted that the mind and the body were two separate entities that interact to shape the experiences of humans (Cherry, K., n.d.).
Descartes, together with other thinkers like Thomas Willis and John Locke recognized the nature of mind and soul, and they also supported the development of clinical psychology as a field and discipline of medicine (Lahav, O., n.d.).
Eventually in the 1800s, psychology emerged as a separate discipline and experimental psychology was born. It was during this time that philosophical concepts in psychology were fused with mathematical and scientific thoughts (Lahav, O., n.d.).
Once the pursuit of science in the study of psychology was established, many areas of study began to flourish. Phrenology and psychophysics were two disciplines that had an impact in the beginnings of psychology. Franz Joseph Gail (1758-1828) introduced the concept of phrenology, which is an approach to the mind-body problem. The basic principle of phrenology is that understanding one’s personality can be done by feeling and interpreting the bumps on the head (Landrum, E., n.d.).
Meanwhile, psychophysics introduced the transition of psychology from philosophical thoughts, to the study of behavior. It is the study of the interaction between the capabilities and limitations of human behavior and the environment. Hermann von Helmholtz, Emst Weber and Gustav Theodor Fechner were the three researchers were key personalities in the concept of psychophysics (Landrum, E., n.d.).
On the other hand, Wilhelm Wundt, the father of psychology, published his book “Principles of Physiological Psychology” in 1874, where he discussed major connections between the science of physiology and the study of human behavior and thought (Cherry, K., n.d.).
In 1879, Wundt founded the first exclusive psychology laboratory. It was a laboratory that was exclusively dedicated to psychological research in Leipzig, Germany (Lahav, O., n.d.). This was considered as the official beginning of psychology as a distinct and a scientific discipline (Cherry, K., n.d.).
Wundt viewed psychology as the study of human consciousness and he applied experimental methods in studying internal mental processes. While his idea on introspection had not been very useful in the development of psychology through the years, Wundt’s early work in psychology paved the way for future experimental methods (Cherry, K., n.d.).
In the late 1800s, experimental psychology also became very important in Germany, Russia, United States and other countries in Western Europe. Discoveries in the areas of memory and learning processes were pioneered by Pavlov and Ebbinghaus (Lahav, O., n.d.).
Meanwhile, psychoanalysis was developed in the 1890s, with Sigmund Freud as the pioneer in the field. Freud developed psychoanalysis as a method of study of psychological functioning and behavior through observation and interpretative methods. He also tackled subjects such as sexuality, repression and the unconscious mind, which led him to become very famous in the field of psychology (Lahav, O., n.d.).
Eventually, new concepts and thoughts emerged in the study of psychology, which brought froth to the study of modern psychology, which we know today.
Cherry, Kendra. (n.d.). The Origins of Psychology: A Brief History of Psychology Through the
Years. Psychology.about.com. Retrieved November 30, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/psychistory.htm
Lahav, Oren. (n.d.). Brief History of Psychology. Psychology.learnhub.com. Retrieved
November 30, 2014, from http://psychology.learnhub.com/lesson/3833-origins-of-psychology
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2014, from http://personal.psu.edu/faculty/a/c/acp103/PSYCH105/brief_history.htm
Self-esteem is an attitude on how a person evaluates his or her value or worth. It is a feeling of pride in oneself; an emotional judgment of one’s strengths. It is important for people, especially children, even at early age, to develop their self-esteem. Self-esteem is one a child’s powerful weapon against the challenges of his day-to-day activities, routines and challenges in school and at home (The Nemours Foundation, 2013).
Children who feel good about themselves and who know their self-worth are said to grow more confident in life; ready to face hurdles and challenges more easily when they reach adulthood. Children who are proud of their skills, capabilities, talents and strengths can easily handle conflicts and they veer away from negative pressures. A child with high self-esteem also knows his or her weaknesses and his limitations, and work well with his strengths, thereby producing more values of confidence, optimism and hope. They are more cheerful, friendly, easy to get along with, and are more eager to learn. Children with stable feelings of self-esteem are also able to mingle with others effortlessly and are more adaptable to different kinds of environments. They are more independent and determined in life.
Self-esteem is a trait that is vital to the overall development of a child. Patterns of this important trait are evident in the early stage of a child’s life. It develops at an early age and it progresses as they grow older (The Nemours Foundation, 2013). Thus, it is essential that this trait should be nurtured and continuously enhanced. So, how can parents help children develop self-esteem?
There are various ways for parents to develop a child’s self-esteem. Through encouragement, children can cultivate a child’s self-esteem. Self-esteem comes from the feeling of being capable while being loved and being secured (The Nemours Foundation, 2013). A child who may feel capable, but is not loved well enough, will only have feelings of low-esteem. Children need the love and assurance of their parents when they achieve something.
Care-giving and culture of parents also play a vital role in shaping a child’s self-esteem. How do care-giving and culture later affect a child’s emotional control? Studies have shown that children who were exposed to proper care-giving and environment factors impact a child’s brain to handle emotions. Children’s coping mechanisms are better enhanced through their socialization by way of good parenting and exposure to outside culture that is hale and healthy (Supplee, L.H., et. al, 2009).
Praise is a good way to boost a child’s self-esteem. For most parents, praising a child’s achievement is like an instinct. It is like an automatic reflex felt every time a child achieves something like learning how to play the guitar, earning a high score in Math, scoring a goal at soccer, helping chores at home, tidying his mess. It is good to give praises to children when they accomplish a chore. When kids do well, it is great to give them a hearty tap at their backs to let them know that they are on the right track. Praises are forms of rewards. Praising a child will boost their self-esteem and will give them a sense of achievement. Praises will also inspire them to achieve better.
However, in some cases praising a child can do more harm than good. When are praises harmful? When is it unwise to praise a child? It is unwise to praise a child when they do not actually deserve it. Praising a child can be harmful when parents tend to overdo it. Some parents overpraise a child by painting perfection as a background. Over-complimenting gives the notion that children are perfect already and that sometimes with a parent’s standard of perfection, some kids try to overdo it too. They try to achieve perfection, which is actually an impossible standard
because in the real scheme of things, perfection is not achievable. Gloating over a kid’s achievement and repeating that he or she is the smartest, brightest and the most talented of all can give the wrong signals to your child. Over-complimenting will create egomaniacs and over-confident children who will always be frustrated if they do not achieve the so-called perfection category (Myers, R.C., 2013). Thus, it is best to be realistic and give truthful compliments and praises. Do not overdo it and do not sugar-coat your accolades. Truthful praises will keep your kids’ feet on the ground and will imbibe them the values of humility and grace. And if children fail and make bad decisions, let them know that you still love them unconditionally. If you show love and praise only during peak of performances and achievements, children will always work up to your expectations.
Today’s generation is a generation of the over-protective parents. We are the “band-aid” parents of this modern generation; always ready to patch our child’s problem, frustration and anxiety. For kids to be able to find their own strengths, capabilities, talents, weaknesses and limitations, let the take risks. Do not give everything on their plate. Let them decide for themselves and help them discover how they can solve their own little problems. Let the take life’s challenges and frustrations. Children who are given the opportunity to make choices on their own are empowered to become responsible individuals. They will realize at a young age too, the consequences of making good or poor choices. Thus, eventually they will imbibe good-decision making skills as they grow into adults later in life. On the side, cheer them on and support them in their decisions.
In boosting a child’s self-esteem, give your children opportunities to show their skills and competence (Myers, R.C., 2013). Let them feel that they are important by involving them in family affairs such as doing house chores. Expand their horizons in many things by introducing various ways to tap their potentials and talents. Encourage them to take up activities that are fun, enjoyable and challenging. Let them pursue activities that they have high interest in. Follow these activities through with words of encouragement and truthful praises.
Punishment forms part of discipline. Physical punishment can be a good way to discipline a child but there are limitations. Physical punishment has advantages and disadvantages. One may ask, what are the advantages and disadvantages of physical punishment?
Physical punishment can help parents deter their children from doing more bad behavior. Knowing that physical punishment is an unpleasant experience, children will realize the consequences of misbehaving (Krow, S., n.d.).
On the other hand, while physical punishment can instill fear among children, this can also do more harm than good. Physical punishment can lead to injuries in children if mismanaged. Sometimes, instead of instilling discipline, the outcome is fear, resentment and hatred in children. This attitude will usher low self-esteem among children. Thus, parents must find alternative ways to discipline a child.
Many parents now opt to discipline their children in alternative ways other than physical punishment. Communication is still the best way to discipline a child. An open and healthy relationship between parent and child can be nurtured through communication.
Self-esteem, the feeling of one’s self-worth must be continuously encouraged among children to help them developed into secured and fulfilled individuals later in their life. Parents can develop this trait through the show of their unconditional love to their children. Praising a child is also a great way to boost a child’s feelings of self-worth. Give only truthful and realistic praises to your children. To further develop their self-esteem, let your children make choices on their own. Involve them in activities that will empower them and let them realize their contribution, worth, and value. Care-giving and culture has also shown as good grounds for strengthening a child’s emotional control. These factors greatly affect a child’s coping mechanisms later in life. Meanwhile, physical punishment has its advantage in disciplining a child, but it also has its advantages. Communication is still the key to nurturing good parent-child relationships.
Our children are our greatest treasures. Love, care and concern are the best ingredients in developing their self-esteem and emotional control, that will help that become loving and responsible individuals later in their life.
Krow, S. (n.d.) The Advantages of Corporal Punishment in Schools. Ehow.com. Retrieved
October 9, 2013, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8159068_advantages-corporal-punishment-schools.html
Myers, R.C. (2013 Sept. 18). How to build your child’s self-esteem. Todaysparent.com.
Retrieved October 9, 2013, from http://www.todaysparent.com/family/parenting/how-to-build-your-childs-self-esteem/
Supplee, L.H., et. al (2009). Emotion regulation strategies and later externalizing behaviour
among European American and African American children. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
Retrieved October 9, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2712493/
The Nemours Foundation (2013). Developing Your Child’s Self-esteem. Kidshealth.org.
Retrieved October 9, 2013, from http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/feelings/self_esteem.html
Brain Plasticity & Neural Effects as a Function of Sexual Trauma
Child sexual abuse, sexual assault, rape, and intimate partner violence are traumatic incidence which results to a long – lasting impacts on the survivors, victims, their family and loved ones, and also the society. The long lasting impact of this predicament ranges from physiological, psychological, to emotional. According to Postmus (2013), the nature impact varies based on the extent of the sexual violence and abuse, the individual characteristics of the survivor or the victim, the reaction of the people close to the survivor or the victim, and the professional support services which are obtained by the survivor or the victim. One of the several impact of sexual violence and abuse to the survivor or the victim is developmental changes and brain functions of the individual.
Sexual violence and abuse, especially during childhood may result to brain damage and developmental delays which can have a lifelong impact. A sexual abuse that transpire during childhood has developmental consequences which are likely to have a profound impact on the future emotional, cognitive, social, and physiological, and emotional functioning. This can result to permanent damage to a developing brain which includes emotions, memory, and learning. It is possible for the victim or the survivor to experience a reduction in volume of the brain area called hippocampus. This area of the brain is responsible for the individual’s learning and memory. This also mediate responses to stress. In addition to this, damage on the hippocampus may also result to delay or deficit on the child’s ability to achieve emotional, cognitive, and behavioral milestones. In cases in which the deficit were not addressed effectively, an individual may experience poor child as well as adult mental health (Postmus, 2012).
Nursing is one of the most fulfilling professions in the world. Through the years, it has evolved from a traditional healing method known only in homes during the ancient times, to a modern health care practice known around the world. Nurses around the world have become ubiquitous health workers. They continue to deliver quality health care in various hospitals and health care institutions in the different countries to all ages, from infants to elderly. Nursing has become a respected vocation and many people pursue this line of work because of the fulfillment and the gratification it brings. Indeed, nursing has seen a long, significant history. Today, it has evolved into a modern health care profession that saves lives.
The history of modern nursing dates back to its founder, Florence Nightingale. After her also emerged various important personalities and theorists in nursing, whose contribution shaped today’s profession.
Florence Nightingale is the most noted name in the nursing history, as she began the formal training of nurses during her time. She lived in 1820 to 1910. According to Dossey (2005), Nightingale was an important figure in the history of nursing. She was a visionary, healer, practitioner and a feminist who changed the world of traditional nursing. She pushed for proper training of nurses and established the first institution for the training of nurses. She started the formal study of nursing by putting put her own Florence Nightingale Training School for nurses in 1860. It was the first of its kind.
Prior to this significant milestone in the history of nursing, Florence Nightingale first spent her time as a nurse at the deaconess Institute in Kaiserswerth in 1851. Here, she and her companion nurses dressed wounds of soldiers and provided proper hygiene and food for them.
She saved lives of many men who fought during the war (Brestovansky, L., n.d.) It was during this time that nursing was started to be seen as a profession that required proper training. Thus, Nightingale, inspired to help people and help other nurses acquire necessary skills in giving proper health care, she put up her training school for nurses. After the war, she also pressed for reforms in the health sector; pushing for reforms in midwifery sector and visitor service in Britain (Brestovansky, L., n.d.). One of Nightingale’s major contributions was addressing the institution of professional nursing services (McDonald, 2001).
Nightingale started the first nursing school at St. Thomas Hospital in London. She was known for her passion in improving nursing standards. She also compiled statistics on medical care and public health which became an important revolution in health care. With Nightingale’s contributions, nurse training programs became hospital-based and the quality of nursing services continuously improved (Brestovansky, L., n.d.).
Meanwhile, Catholic sisters were mostly the women nurses who served during the American Civil War in 1861-85. Known during this era were the Sisters of the Holy Cross of Notre Dame, Indiana. These sister-nurses actually had no formal training. They only practiced nursing through their interaction with the poor people, where they learned skills in nursing. A significant figure during the American Civil war was Clara Barton. Barton was nicknames “Angel of the Battlefield” and assisted Civil war soldiers by distributing supplies and other aid.
After the war, she went to Europe. In Europe, Barton learned about the International Red Cross, which helped during the time of war in relieving suffering. Upon her return to America, she created the American Red Cross. She also pushed for the expansion of Red Cross, with the institution helping others during epidemics and calamities (Brestovansky, L., n.d.).
Many women served as nurses during World War II. When the war ended, a lot of nurses were looking for jobs because only a few nursing jobs were available then. When the First World War ended there already had been an oversupply of nurses. The proliferation of hospital training programs also added to the undersupply of nursing jobs. There were not enough jobs at the hospitals too for nursing graduates. The quality of training for nurses started to vary too. The Rockefeller Study of Nursing and Nursing Education pushed for the reform of nursing education in 1923. Among the reforms that took place was the grading of 2,000 U.S. nurse training programs. With this initiated reform, some 200 schools were closed because they did not pass criteria of quality nursing services. Other became affiliated with colleges and universities in order to improve basic instruction. Many small hospitals did away with a nurse training program. Nursing education was focused instead in colleges and universities (Brestovansky, L., n.d.).
By 1952, a major name in the theory of nursing emerged by the person of Hildegard Peplau. Peplau was a nursing theorist who created an interpersonal model which emphasized the important partnership between nurse and client. She did not approve of the passive treatment of client whereby the nurses only act out according to the orders of the doctors. (Timetoast, n.d.). She developed the theory of nursing as a therapeutic interpersonal process.
In 1959, Dorothea Orem founded the Orem model of nursing or Self-care Deficit Nursing Theory. Her theory emphasized that patients will recover quickly and holistically if they are allowed to take care of themselves to the best of their abilities (Timetoast, n.d.).
The 60s also saw the development of new theories in nursing which were initiated by various names like Abdellah, Leininger, Orlando and Johnson.
Faye Glenn Abdella changed the focus of nursing from disease-centered to patient-centered. She also initiated the inclusion of family and elderly care in nursing care. She developed the Patient Assessment of Care Evaluation used in the U.S. (JCHS Library, n.d.).
Madeleine Leiniger was a nursing theorist with the most notable contribution of transcultural nursing concept. She emphasized the role of cultural factors in nursing practice in bringing excellent nursing care (Timetoast, n.d.).
Ida Jean Orlando was a nursing theorist whose work became known in the 60s. She said that it is a nurse’s duty to know how to deal with challenges in the hospital or workplace in order to encourage the full recovery of patients. Orlando’s Deliberative Nursing Process helped nurses to create an effective nursing care plan (JCHS Library, n.d.).
Dorothy Johnson’s theory of nursing focused on stress can affect the ability of a patient to recover from illness. She said that the goal of nursing is to reduce stress so that patients can move easily for quick and full recovery (Nursing Theories, 2012).
In the 70s, several nursing theorists also shared new concepts in nursing care. Among them include Rogers, Neuman, Roy and Watsons. In the early 70’s Martha Rogers developed the Science Unitary Human Beings and her book, An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing. She promoted health and prevention of illness and the proper care for persons with disabilities through humanistic science of nursing (Timetoast, n.d.).
Betty Neuman’s nursing theory is based on her belief that patients must be cared for from a holistic perspective (JCHS Library, n.d.). Meanwhile, Sister Callista Roy’s theory is focused on the adaptive nature of nursing. She said that nurses should be flexible in providing the best health care for clients. This theory believes that each patient has different needs and must be cared for also in different ways (JCHS Library, n.d.).
On the other hand, Jean Watson was known for her Theory of Human/Transpersonal Caring (Timetoast, n.d). She believes that compassion is one of the needed traits of nurses. Her Philosophy and Science of Caring emphasizes the ways that nurses should care for their patients and it highlights how these ways can translate better health plans for patients to fully recover (JCHS Library, n.d.).
With medicine and nursing incorporated in education, medicine and nursing care improved. Hospitals also improved and nursing became a sought-after profession around the world. Nurses did not only serve in hospitals anymore. They also did their profession in nursing homes, prisons and in private clinics. Nurses also started to specialize in many areas like surgery, obstetrics and gynecology and emergency care (Brestovansky, L., n.d.).
Nursing has become a noble profession in the different parts of the world. With the trends in nursing, training has become varied from country to country. British nurses receive three years of hospital-based training. In France, nurses must acquire a 28-month apprenticeship. In the U.S. licensed practical nurses must have one year of training. They just serve in nursing homes. On the other hand, registered nurses in the U.S. must acquire two or four years of training, including a vast experience in hospitals, nursing homes other nursing establishments. Nowadays, nurses can continue to pursue more knowledge, learning, skills and expertise in nursing through Masters and Doctorate degrees. Thus, nurses today are more equipped with modern trends and knowledge in nursing theories, breakthroughs and researches. They have become more empowered to take on their tasks in the world of quality health care. They now perform important functions and are highly trained to provide the best healthcare services to their patients around the world (Brestovansky, L., n.d.).
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Bouchat v. Ravens
Court of Appeals of the United States of America
2000, 241 F3d 350
Statement of Facts:
An appeal was brought before the United States Court of Appeals from the United States District Court of Maryland. Frederick E. Bouchat, plaintiff-appellee, initiated the action in the District Court of Maryland seeking for the payment of damages in the amount of $10,000,000. Plaintiff alleges that defendants-appellants Baltimore Ravens, Inc. and the National Football League Properties, Inc. had committed infringement when they appropriated his three different drawings of his original work. He further alleged that he created several drawings during the latter parts of 1995, including an illustration of a shield (hereinafter referred to as his “shield drawing”) (Bouchat v. Ravens, 2000, 241 F3d 350).
The facts of the case further showed that the said drawings were created by Frederick Bouchat, an amateur artist when news about Maryland’s own football team would be formed, based on his favorite possible team name – the Ravens. At this time, Bouchat’s drawings were displayed in the main entrance of the building where he is working as a security guard (Bouchat v. Ravens, 2000, 241 F3d). Thereafter, one of the officials of the Maryland Stadium Authority met with Bouchat and the two began to discuss about his drawings. Fascinated, the said official asked the latter to fax his drawings. They never had the chance to meet or talk to each other following this incident. It was only in August of 1996 when the logo of the Ravens was unveiled which was recognized to be the drawing of Bouchat (Bouchat v. Ravens, 2000, 241 F3d).
In their defense, the defendants allege that they have developed their acts do not constitute infringement as they have developed the shield logo independently. In the same manner, they also questioned Bouchat’s entitlement to copyright infringement as the elements of his drawings lack the requirement of originality (Bouchat v. Ravens, 2000, 241 F3d). Nevertheless, the jury decided in favor of Bouchat, stating that herein defendants, the Baltimore Ravens and the National Football League committed acts of infringement.
The District Court of Maryland initially heard the case. In November of 1998, the jury rendered a decision in favor of the plaintiff but only with respect to his shield drawing. This decision prompted the defendants to file alternative Motions for Judgment and New Trial. The defendants anchor these motions on the failure of the plaintiff to prove that they had access to the drawings of Bouchat. The defendants further denied that they have actually received the faxed drawings. In this sense, no compelling evidence exists with respect to their appropriation of Bouchat’s work. Aside from this, the defendants also questioned the appropriateness of protecting the work at hand, contending that it is not copyrightable under the law. The defendants contend that the work is not entitled to protection as it contains items from the public domain.
1. Whether or not the issue of access is material in deciding the case of infringement
2. Whether or not Bouchat’s drawing qualify for copyright protection
The Court affirmed the decision of the District Court of Maryland.
The Court of Appeals state that under the law, Bouchat’s drawings indeed qualify for copyright protection. Thus, based on the Strikingly Similar doctrine, the issue of access is immaterial in this case of infringement.
Rule of Law or Legal Principle Applied:
In deciding the case, the Court relied extensively on Copyright Law, most especially with respect to the elements of copyright protection. In addition, the Court also upholds the strikingly similar doctrine upheld in the case of Gaste.
The court, in ruling in favor of Bouchat states that the strikingly similar doctrine as first introduced in the case of Gaste does away with the issue of access. Basically, the strikingly similar doctrine permits an inference of access whenever two works are similar to one another.
Essentially, this strikingly similar doctrine negates the possibility of independent creation. As mentioned in a prior case, such striking similarity can lead one to believe that a work has indeed been copied from another. In this particular case, while it is true that the plaintiff failed to adduce sufficient evidence in relation to the defendants’ access of his drawings, the striking similarity between his works and the logo of the Ravens and the National Football League sufficiently shows copyright infringement.
Given the aforementioned, the court further states that it is of no moment that Bouchat did not prove that Modell (the official of the Ravens) actually saw the drawings. Instead, he was required to prove that the former was merely given the opportunity to view them. Most importantly, Bouchat’s act of transmitting a copy of his drawings to the officials of the Ravens is more than hypothetical. Verily, these acts support the Ravens’ infringement of Bouchat’s works.
The court likewise upheld the fact that Bouchat’s drawing qualifies for copyright protection. As mentioned, the defendants argue that the drawings of Bouchat do not qualify for protection because it does not contain original elements. According to the court, while it is true that the drawings of Bouchat contain items of the public domain that are not usually covered by copyright protection, the manner by which they are arranged and grouped made the entire work original. This regrouping then becomes the subject of copyright protection.
No concurring/dissenting opinions have been included in the decision of the court.
Many individuals wants to have a small business, however most of them also fears of facing potential risks. They know they can start a business but they are not familiar with the effective strategies. This research paper aims to tackle the five strategies that contribute to a small business, and how does each strategy provide for successful results.
The five strategies to be discussed includes the following: Identifying specific target market, engaging with the target market, product development, distinguishing business against other competitors, and becoming an expert (Galloway, 2015). These five strategies are important in building a small business because these will guide entrepreneurs in creating an attitude that aims success.
The Five Strategies of Successful Small Business
Identifying Specific Target Market. A business must first identify a specific target market in order to know their demands. Galloway (2015), said that attending to a small group of target market will help small firms become familiar with daily operations. She also added that once they become successful in catering to small group of target market, it is time to plan whether they can expand to other target markets so that they will not remain being a small business.
Engaging Target Market. This strategy means building a good relationship towards customers. This can be done by offering the best product and services to achieve customer’s satisfaction. If they have complaints, suggestions, or feedbacks, the business should attend to it right away because this will add to the business growth and success (Galloway, 2015).
Product Development. According to Traynor (2015), Improving the products and services of a company is also the key to success. Entrepreneurs must consider that customer’s needs and wants changes overtime and they have to catch up with that. Some people become bored with the same product and service that is why it is advisable to always think of something unique to excite the customer. In addition to this, if the competitor’s products and services are more advanced, it is most likely to lose loyal customers because they will always choose something more efficient and modern (Traynor, 2015).
Distinguish Business Against Competitors. Galloway (2015), explained that lowering down the prices of a product is not always the solution to win against competitors. Moreover, to be competitive, a business must distinguish the most important but cost effective strategy. This will help the company standout against other businesses. For example, a company may provide customers freebies or discounts for every repeat transaction. It can build customer’s interest because there is something to look forward to.
Become an Expert. Being focused on a particular product is necessary in every business. There are entrepreneurs who tried their luck in offering different types of products and services in order to generate money. Unfortunately, because of too many services, they cannot concentrate on the services that they specialize. One should always remember that a good entrepreneur always focus to the areas of his expertise. When a business person is very well trained with what he offers, it is possible to achieve client’s satisfaction. As a result, loyal and satisfied customers may also recommend their good experience to other people (Galloway, 2015).
In conclusion, the application of these five strategies is very effective in building a small business. Knowing the target market can help entrepreneurs decide if they should consider taking the next level. Also, it is up to them if they will expand or continue with what they have. Moreover, engaging with the target market is very important because once the business prove its competency it is possible to achieve customer’s trust and loyalty. Their loyalty does not just contribute to sales but also the feedback they provide can help generate new clients. Products and services innovation should be considered because people will always look for updated facilities. Defining the uniqueness of a business against competitors is necessary because this will help them stand out among others. Providing rewards such as freebies and discounts for repeat transactions will make customers feel important. Lastly, focusing on the company’s field of expertise boosts client’s confidence because they are aware that the business specializes on a certain product and service (Galloway, 2015).
L Galloway. (2015, December 16). Five Strategies for a Successful Small Business. Retrieved from
D Traynor. (2015). Making Things People Want. Retrieved from
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Bob Jackson is born in around 1970, which makes him one of the Generation X. However, Bob’s attitude towards work appears to be congruent to Traditionalist generational group. According to United Nation Joint Staff Pension Fund (“Overcoming generational gap in the workplace”, n.d.), Traditionalist perspective towards work is very serious and committed. These people sets the rules and obey them as well. The rationale regarding this kind of attitude is because people born during this period (1925-1945) experienced several challenges in life brought about by World War II. This cultivated the people to be serious about their work, making them profoundly hardworking in order to attain optimum results and overcome the detrimental impacts of war.
Jackson manifest the same attitude towards work, he had been described to be a workaholic person. He work hard and set a goal that he aim to accomplish on a specific time. It was mentioned that Jackson plans to be the president of the organization prior reaching 50 years old. This kind of goal expounds United Nation Joint Staff Pension Fund’s description that traditionalist perceives that seniority is integral in advancing to one’s career. Thus, he works very hard in order to be promoted and make his way to his goal of being the organization’s president. Given Jackson’s loyalty towards the organization, he would also likely to always follow its rule and regulation. From this appraisal, Bob Jackson fall on the Traditionalist generational group even though he is technically born during Generation X. His strong attitude towards work which underscores how he significant exert effort for promotion and his dedication in reaching his goal, expounds that he is profoundly focus on his career and the success of attaining a great career would also delineate his success as an individual.
Jerry Thomas is born around 1986, which makes him part of Generation Y; however, his attitude towards work is well demarcated by Baby Boomers. The people born during 1946 to 1964, were more fortunate as compared to the Traditionalist, because they were the people who experiences abundance. The hardworking Traditionalist were able to revive the economy which lead to several success, thus providing better status for the society. Thomas was defined to be a young leader who is impulsive, self-centered, and do not observe the Organization’s policies religiously. Such kind of attitude can explicate the demarcation provided by United Nation Joint Staff Pension Fund (“Overcoming generational gap in the workplace”, n.d.). The organization explained that Baby Boomers would often perceived that the world revolving around them, which may explain why Thomas appears to be somewhat a self-centered individual.
Baby Boomers were also expound to be people who would disapprove absolutes and structures, and this factor explain why Jeff Thomas is unwilling to play by the rules. The somewhat self-centeredness of Thomas can also result to his ineffectiveness in handling negative feedbacks of conflicts, which also can be cultivated by his impulsiveness. The Baby Boomers generational group best fit Jeff Thomas situation because of the similarities of how they perceived work. For Baby Boomers they believe that they live to work, and with this kind of perception, room for errors is not accommodated. Since they are already on the state of abundance, they would feel significantly committed on their action to avert coming back from detrimental experiences.